EVs use a battery to store the electrical energy that powers the motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. Although electricity production may contribute to air pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers EVs to be zero-­emission vehicles because their motors produce no exhaust or emissions. Since EVs use no other fuel, they help reduce petroleum consumption.

Currently available EVs have a shorter range per charge than most conventional vehicles have per tank of gas. EV manufacturers typically target a minimum range of 100 miles. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration, 100 miles is sufficient for more than 90% of all house-­ hold vehicle trips in the United States.

Light-­duty HEV, PHEV, and EV models are currently available from a number of auto manufacturers, with additional models expected to be released in coming years. There are also a variety of medium and heavy-­duty options available. For up-­to-­date information on available vehicle models, refer to the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center’s (AFDC) Electric Vehicle Availability page:
www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/electric_availability.html and www.FuelEconomy.gov.

EV Fact Sheet PDF Download

Qualified Plug-In Electric Drive Vehicle Tax Credit

  Type Amps Voltage (V) Kw Charging Time Primary Use
Level 1 AC 12-16 Amps 120V 1.3 to 1.9 kW 2-5 miles of range/hour of charging Residential charging
Level 2 AC Up to 80 amps 240v Up to 19.2 kW 10-20 miles of range per hour of charging Residential charging & public charging
Level 3 (in development AC TBD TBD TBD 60-80 miles of range in less than 30 minutes Public charging
DC Fast Charging DC Up to 200 amps 208-600V 50 to 150 kW 60-80 miles of range in less than 30 minutes Public charging